The ban has been imposed for multiple breaches of FIFA's ethics code and comes into force when a current suspension ends in October, FIFA said.
The same length of suspension has also been imposed on the organisation's former secretary general Jerome Valcke.
A statement from FIFA said: "The investigations into Messrs Blatter and Valcke covered various charges, in particular concerning bonus payments in relation to FIFA competitions that were paid to top FIFA management officials, various amendments and extensions of employment contracts, as well as reimbursement by FIFA of private legal costs in the case of Mr Valcke."
The adjudicatory chamber of FIFA's ethics committee found Blatter, 85, in breach of rules concerning duty of loyalty, conflicts of interest and offering or accepting gifts or other benefits.
Valcke was found to have breached those same ethics code articles, plus abuse of position.
Blatter was initially banned for eight years in December 2015 over ethics breaches. That sanction was reduced to six years by FIFA's appeals committee and upheld by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Valcke's original ban was 12 years, cut to 10 on appeal.
Both men have been fined one million Swiss francs (almost £780,000) over the latest breaches, FIFA said.
Blatter's conduct was, it concluded, "completely reprehensible".
Valcke was found to have accepted an undue economic benefit of 30m Swiss francs (over £23m) - this was made up of a 9m bonus related to the 2010 World Cup, a 10m bonus connected to the 2013 Confederations Cup and 2014 World Cup in Brazil and an 11m bonus in relation to the 2017 Confederations Cup and 2018 World Cup in Russia.
He was also found to have approved a payment of 9,714 Swiss francs (over £7,000) from FIFA accounts to be reimbursed for legal advice he and Kattner had taken in relation to the preparation of the amended contracts.