Areas have been ranked by PM2.5 concentrations recorded in 2019 by the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs (Defra).
PM2.5 are solid or liquid particles with a diameter at least 30 times smaller than the width of a human hair. It can be naturally occurring, such as from sea spray or dust storms, or man made, from soot caused by burning fuels for transport, industry and heating.
Islington ranked fifth for air pollution, with a concentration of around 12.6%, 95.4% of which resulted from manmade causes.
6. Barking and Dagenham
This London borough had similarly high levels of air pollution, with a concentration of around 12.6%. Like Islington, 95.4% of this pollution was manmade.
7. Kensington and Chelsea
Kensington and Chelsea also saw PM2.5 pollution levels of around 12.6%, with 95.4% of this manmade.
Hackney’s PM2.5 pollution totalled 12.6% in 2019, with 95.4% of this manmade.